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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September & October-December 2021
Volume 44 | Issue 3
Issue 3 & 4
Page Nos. 121-173

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EDITORIAL  

ISO/IEC 17025: Accreditation standard for testing and calibration laboratories p. 121
DD Rao
DOI:10.4103/rpe.rpe_41_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Statistical analysis of extreme value of meteorological elements observed for the last 31 years (1989–2019) at Narora site p. 123
Deepak Kumar, YP Gautam, Vimal Kumar, S Kumar, IV Saradhi, A Vinod Kumar
DOI:10.4103/rpe.rpe_27_21  
Understanding of extreme weather conditions at the site of interest is essentially required in the design of engineering structures so that the structures can withstand weather stresses. This paper presents an analysis of extreme values of meteorological elements observed at Narora site for the last three decades (1989–2019). The elements considered are extreme air temperature (°C), minimum relative humidity (%), extreme wind gust (km/h), maximum rainfall (mm) in a day and a month, and annual rainfall. The extreme value analysis reveals that the maximum air temperature, maximum wind gust at 30 m, maximum monthly rainfall, and maximum annual rainfall obey Fisher-Tippett Type-1/Gumbel extreme value distribution, whereas minimum air temperature, minimum relative humidity (%), annual daily maximum rainfall (mm), and annual minimum rainfall (mm) obey Fisher-Tippett Type-2/Frechet extreme value distribution function. Distribution function parameters, i.e., location, scale, and shape parameter for each variable, have been determined. Extreme values corresponding to return periods of 50, 100, and 1000 years are worked out using best fit linear regression curve as a compliance of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board Safety Guide Recommendations. The derived extreme values are particularly useful to designer for arriving at suitable design basis values of different elements to ensure the safety of the reactors and other civil structures in Narora region, with respect to stresses due to weather conditions. Extreme values corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years at Narora are compared with corresponding values at other three nuclear reactor sites in India, namely, Tarapur, Kalpakkam, and Trombay. In addition, the time series pattern analysis of rainfall for 31 years at the Narora site closely following the 2-year moving average rainfall data pattern. These results can be used for water harvesting, irrigation, and floods management plans in the future.
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Studies on foliar uptake of tritiated water on Spinach sp. during light and dark simulated conditions using environmental chamber p. 131
Chetan P Joshi, AK Patra, MK Jha, V Sudheendran, A Baburajan, IV Saradhi, A VinodKumar
DOI:10.4103/rpe.rpe_15_21  
Studies on foliar uptake of tritiated water (HTO) on Spinach sp. during light and dark condition was simulated inside the environmental chamber, and an attempt was made to compute CTFWTHTO, CpfwHTO, CpcwOBT, CpfwOBT using basic equations available in IAEA TECDOC1616. The predicted activity was compared with the observed activity. The conversion of tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) to organically bound tritium (OBT) was more in the light condition. The ratio of OBT to TFWT varied from 0.006 to 0.082. The ratio of observed OBT activity (Bq/kg fresh weight) in light to dark conditions varied from 34% to 117%.
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Analysis of postoperation radiation hazards in inertial electrostatic confinement fusion neutron source facility at center of plasma physics under institute for plasma research p. 135
HL Swami, SR Mohanty, S Vala, R Srinivasan, R Kumar
DOI:10.4103/rpe.rpe_20_21  
Center of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Assam, has the neutron source based on Inertial Electrostatic Confinement of Fusion. In order to scale up the source, it is planned to build a neutron source facility. The facility needs the construction approval from AERB India for occupational radiation safety during the operation and after the operation. It will also assess the short-term and long-term radiological hazards due to the neutron source. In order to evaluate the post irradiation radiation hazards due the neutron source, the radioactivation analysis of laboratory is carried out and reported here. The radioactivity in the laboratory building and source components after short-term and long-term operation has been assessed. The tritium activity in the soil is also evaluated. The calculation is also done for the contact dose rate estimations after operation to assess the maintenance applicability inside the laboratory. The inhalation dose inside the laboratory after the operation has been also calculated to avoid any hazards after operation maintenance activities. The article provides the complete details of post operation hazards analysis for the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion neutron source facility.
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Initial experience on the use of real-time displayed radiation dose monitoring system in computed tomography fluoroscopy p. 141
Driss Raissi, Thomas M Seay, Jie Zhang
DOI:10.4103/rpe.rpe_34_21  
This study presents our initial experience on the effective approach to apply real-time radiation dose monitoring during computed tomography (CT)-guided interventional procedures and the potential effects on overall radiation dose. A phantom study using multiple detectors at different body levels was conducted to determine badge positioning and possible effects on scatter radiation doses at three angles; parallel, perpendicular, and 45° relative to the CT gantry. A retrospective study was also conducted to compare scatter radiation and patient radiation doses during live CT fluoroscopy-guided procedures. Highest dose rates were observed when detector faced the scatter source in the perpendicular position to the gantry. There is no significant difference between wearing the detector at the shoulder or at the waist level. The use of real-time dose monitoring system provides immediate feedback during CT fluoroscopy procedures allowing for timely behavior modification.
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Estimation of indoor 222Rn and 220Rn concentration and annual inhalation dose in the indoor environment around Kolar district of Karnataka state, India p. 146
K Umesha Reddy, CS Kaliprasad, C Suresh, C Ningappa, B N. Beena Ullala Mata, E Srinivasa
DOI:10.4103/rpe.rpe_33_21  
The indoor 222Rn and 220Rn were measured by using deposition progeny sensors and single-entry pinhole dosimeter around Kolar Gold Fields of Karnataka state, India. The thirty different places were identified and fixed the dosimetry cups for the determination. The 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations of indoor environment range from 26.2 ± 1.3 to 138.4 ± 1.6 and 21.2 ± 0.8 to 133.3 ± 1.5 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 68.8 ± 1.6 and 61.8 ± 1.5 Bq/m3, respectively. The equivalent concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn values vary from 0.9 ± 0.4 to 7.6 ± 1.1 and 6.8 ± 0.8 to 19.8 ± 1.8 Bq/m3 with a standard value of 4.3 ± 0.8 and 14.2 ± 1.3 Bq/m3, respectively. The values between the equilibrium factor between 222Rn, 220Rn, and their daughter were also calculated and found to be 0.23 and 0.07, respectively. The average annual intake of 222Rn, 220Rn, and their daughters' products is 2.28 mSv/y1, slightly below the global average of 2.4 mSv/y1 from all components. The data obtained compare average values in the world.
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Assessment of heavy metal enrichment and contamination in the wetlands of Kannur district, Kerala p. 152
T Vinodkumar, V Vineethkumar, CV Vishnu, VV Sayooj, V Prakash
DOI:10.4103/rpe.rpe_22_21  
The present investigation is an attempt to trace the heavy metal enrichment in the soil matrix of the wetlands Kannur district, Kerala. Wetland is an ecosystem which plays significant role in ecological balance. Characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants makes this distinct ecosystem as unique and distinguishable from other land forms and water bodies. The hydric soil prevailing in the wetlands is rich in organic matter content and also enriched with many heavy metals. In view of this, the enrichment of some major heavy metals such as Co, Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, and As have been quantified in the soil samples collected from the wetlands of southern part of Kerala using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The adverse effect of this enrichment on human and environment is of serious concern and hence various pollution index parameters were calculated to assess the extent of contamination. The spatial distribution study confirms the dependence of geological factors on the enrichment of heavy metals. The study on various pollution index parameters reveals the selective enrichment of heavy metals. The continuous monitoring of wetlands is the need of the time as such areas are preserved for the cultivation of aquatic plants. The results of the investigation are presented and discussed in detail in the manuscript.
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Assessment of radon exhalation rates in mineral rocks used in building decoration in Nigeria p. 161
Mustapha Kola Lawal, Paul Sola Ayanlola, Olukunle Olaonipekun Oladapo, Michael Olatunde Oni, Abraham Adewale Aremu
DOI:10.4103/rpe.rpe_39_21  
The recent interest in the applications of mineral rocks for interior building decoration has been a major concern from the radiological perspective because the breaking down of rocks into various shapes and sizes releases radioactive gaseous element that is harmful to human health. Hence, this study assessed the radon exhalation rates of different rock types in Nigeria and their implications on human health. A total of 45 samples comprising five samples per rock type were prepared, packed, and sealed inside a modified closed can and thereafter subjected to radon concentration measurement using a RAD7 detector. The results of the study showed that granite and limestone rock types had high radon concentrations and exhalation rates as compared to other rock samples assessed. The radon concentration for granite and limestone rockfalls within the action level limit. Thus, effort should be made to ensure adequate ventilation of any building that uses these rock types in building decoration. The results obtained can be used as baseline data for future investigation of the rock types in any locality.
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Stable isotope analysis in environmental impact assessment of radioactivity releases from nuclear power plants p. 167
Mahadeva R Iyer
DOI:10.4103/rpe.rpe_40_21  
The potential use of stable fission products from the decay of radioactive contaminants in recreating the impact assessment of radioactivity releases from nuclear power stations is examined. With the advances in mass spectrometry, Minimum Detectable Limits (MDLs) comparable to radioactive measurements have been achieved in the case of stable isotopes as well. The applications of stable fission products in safeguards and environmental surveillance by the author are mentioned. The limited application of stable fission products in the analysis of Fukushima environmental samples is reviewed. The article examines the possible candidates for such analysis and points out the enormous possibilities. This is a neglected field in environmental impact assessment till now and calls for standardizing measurement procedures and analysis methodologies. The stable fission product signatures can also be used to study the uptake and transport of radionuclides in the environment.
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NEWS AND INFORMATION Top

Salient features of IAEA-TECDOC-1951: Protection against exposure due to radon indoors and gamma radiation from construction materials - Methods of prevention and mitigation p. 171
DD Rao
DOI:10.4103/rpe.rpe_42_21  
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