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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 212-221

ISOGEN: Interactive isotope generation and depletion code

Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Kamatam Venkata Subbaiah
Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal - 576 104, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-0464.199976

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ISOGEN is an interactive code for solving first order coupled linear differential equations with constant coefficients for a large number of isotopes, which are produced or depleted by the processes of radioactive decay or through neutron transmutation or fission. These coupled equations can be written in a matrix notation involving radioactive decay constants and transmutation coefficients, and the eigenvalues of thus formed matrix vary widely (several tens of orders), and hence no single method of solution is suitable for obtaining precise estimate of concentrations of isotopes. Therefore, different methods of solutions are followed, namely, matrix exponential method, Bateman series method, and Gauss–Seidel iteration method, as was followed in the ORIGEN-2 code. ISOGEN code is written in a modern computer language, VB.NET version 2013 for Windows operating system version 7, which enables one to provide many interactive features between the user and the program. The output results depend on the input neutron database employed and the time step involved in the calculations. The present program can display the information about the database files, and the user has to select one which suits the current need. The program prints the “WARNING” information if the time step is too large, which is decided based on the built-in convergence criterion. Other salient interactive features provided are (i) inspection of input data that goes into calculation, (ii) viewing of radioactive decay sequence of isotopes (daughters, precursors, photons emitted) in a graphical format, (iii) solution of parent and daughter products by direct Bateman series solution method, (iv) quick input method and context sensitive prompts for guiding the novice user, (v) view of output tables for any parameter of interest, and (vi) output file can be read to generate new information and can be viewed or printed since the program stores basic nuclide concentration unlike other batch jobs. The sample problems are chosen to serve two purposes, namely to validate the results of the code against problems where the analytical solution is possible, and the other is to demonstrate the use of particular solution method adopted for solving the problem. Besides spent fuels, results are validated for many of the useful deduced parameters of practical interest such as radioactivity, thermal power, alpha activity, neutron emission rate, and photon emission spectrum. These parameters are of utmost important in handling spent fuels, in waste disposal, in fuel management, in radiation shielding and many other areas of nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

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